Solar panels absorb sunlight to produce electricity like an LED light bulb uses electricity to create light. When light shines down on a solar panel, it converts the energy into an electric current using semiconductor materials and is the main solar technology that makes a system work..
Solar panels are made of special cells called solar cells (also called solar photovoltaic cells). A single photovoltaic PV cell can generate only a small amount of electricity, but multiple cells connected together can generate substantial amounts of power. PV cells are designed with positive and negative layers of semiconductor material. When joined together, the layers create an electric field capable of converting sunlight into usable energy. PV cells are typically made of silicon or similar materials.
Solar cells are manufactured by layering various materials on top of each other. For example, some applications require a single layer of light-absorbing material. In contrast, others benefit from connecting multiple layers to form a multi-junction solar cell for better performance.
Solar cells can be made from several different materials. Silicon is one of the most common, but there are other options that could even outshine it. For example, perovskite solar cells are still finding their footing in the world of solar engineering, but they’re already making big waves in terms of efficiency and price. At present, however, silicon remains the industry standard.